Tuesday, January 29, 2019

reading and voc this week

Ch 10 Meiosis & Sexual Life Cycles heredity, variation, genetics, offspring acquired gene from parents by inheriting chromosomes, genes, gametes, somatic cells, locus-loci, comparison of sexual and asexual reproduction, a sexual reproduction, clone, sexual reproduction, fertilization in meiosis alterate in sexual life cycles, life cycle, karyote, homologous chromosomes, homologous pair, sex chromosomes, autosomes, diploid cell, haploid cell, human life cycle, fertilization., zygote, meiosis three types of sexual life cycles, alternation of generation meiosis reduces the number of chromosomes set from diploid to haploid, meiosis I, meiosis II, crossing over Ch 11 Medelian Genetics Character, trait, true-breeding, homozygous dominant, hybrid, heterozygous, homozygous recessive, hybridization, P generation, F1, F2, alleles , dominant alleles, recessive allele, law of segregation low of dominance, phenotype, genotype, phenotypic, genotypic ration, test cross law of independent assortment, dyhybrid cross, probability laws govern Mendelian inheritance, multiplication rule, addition rule, solving complex genetics problems with rules of probability, non Mendelian genetics, complete dominance, incomplete dominance, co-dominance, Tay Sachs disease, multiple alleles, polygenic inheritance, Nature vs. Nurture, Pedigree analysis, recessive inherited disorders, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell :dominantly inherited disorders- Huntington disease,

Tuesday, December 18, 2018

new essay using chapter 31 only open book due tomorrow

Open response question on plants Plants have evolved different anatomical structures to deal with a variety of environmental conditions. A. Choose and discuss two physical adaptations evolved by plants that help them to deal with their environment, each one a different environmental condition. Include the adaptation, the kind of plant that has it, and how the adaptation solve a particular problem. B. Also choose one adaptation in plants that can respond to changes in environmental conditions to help them regulate homeostasis. Discuss how the adaptation helps them regulate homeostasis. c. Plants use spores, seeds in cones and fruits in flowering plants to do sexual reproduction. Discuss how a plant can do asexual reproduction by using one of its body parts. Include the name of the plant, what modified body part is used, and how it works to reproduce.

Thursday, December 6, 2018

28 vocab

Ch 28 Plant Structure & Growth Hierarchical organism of organs tissue and cells, what is an organ tissue and cell, root system, shoot system, roots' lateral root, root hair, fibrous roots, aereal roots, storage roots, internodes, apical bud, axially bud, Leaves, leaf, blade, petiole, tendrils, spines, storage leaves, reproductive leaves Dermal, vascular, ground tissue, systems, epidermis, cuticle, periderm, Vascular Tissue, xylem, phloem, stele, Ground Tissue, pith, cortex Monocot & eudicot, cotyledon, parallel venation, net venation, floral parts in 4's or 5's Cell differentiation, parenchyma cell, collenchyma cell, sclerenchyma cell, xylem & phloem Different meristem generate new cell for primary and secondary growth. indeterminate growth vs. determinate growth, apical meristem, primary growth, secondary growth, lateral meristem, vascular cambium, cork cambium, apical bud, Primary growth lengthens roots and shoots- root cap, zone of cell division, root apical meristem, zone of elongation, zone of differentiation, root hair, cortex, vascular cylinder, monocot root with scattered xylem, eudicot with xylem star, apical dominance, Tissue level organization of Leaves- stomata, guard cell epidermis, palisade mesophyll , and spongy mesophyll, tissue organization of stems, vascular bundles, pith, cortex, epidermis, Secondary Growth increases the diameter of stems and roots in woody plants- vascular cambium, cork cambium, primary xylem, primary phloem, secondary xylem, secondary phloem

Wednesday, November 14, 2018

chapter 7 photosynthesis is the reading.

vocab and concepts to know Ch 8 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food Autotrophs vs. Heterotrophs, producers , chloroplast, photoautotroph, (plant, algae, photosynthetic protease, cyanobacteria, purple sulfur bacteria) mesophyll, stomata, stroma, thylakoid, thylakoid space, chlorophyll, photolysis, ATC, light reaction, reduction oxidation, light reaction, Calvin cycle, NAP+, NADPH, photophosphorylation, carbon fixation, Light Reactions convert solar energy to the chemical of ATP and NADPH, electromagnetic spectrum, visible light, photons, spectrophotometer, absorption spectrum, chlorophyll A, chlorophyll B, action spectrum, Engelman's experiment, porphyrin ring, carotenoids Excitation by light, ground state, excited state, Photosystem equals a reaction center complex, associated with light harvesting complexes, primary electronic acceptor, photosystem II, P680, photosystem I, P700, linear electron flow, chemiosmosis The Calvin uses the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH to reduce carbon dioxide to sugar, anabolic, G3P, carbon fixation, rubisco, reduction, G3P output, regeneration of carbon dioxide acceptor ( RuBP) Evolution of alternative mechanism of carbon fixation, in hot arid climates, C3 plants, photorespiration, C4 plants, CAM plants Making connections to Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration, movement across the cell membrane, and flow of genetic information

Monday, November 5, 2018

c 7 vocab notes flash cards

Chapter 7 Cellular respiration and fermentation Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing fuels fermentation, aerobic respiration, cullular respiration, redox reactions-oxidation and reduction, electron transport chain, Nad+  NADH, 4 steps: Glycolysis, pyruvate oxidation citric acid cycle,, oxidative phosphorylation. substrate level phosphorylation vs oxidative phosphorylation., Glycolysis harvests chemical energy (2 net ATP) by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate: investment phase, coupled reactions, Energy payoff phase After pyruvate is oxidized, the citric acid cycle completes the energy yeilding oxidation of organic molecules acetyl CoA, citric acid, oxalacetate, CO2 released NADH, FADH2, ATP Redox reaction store energy in electron transfer molecules in electrons and protons. During oxidative phosphorylation, chemiosmosis couples electron transport to form a proton gradient to tdrive the synthesis of ATP electron transport chain,, cytochromes, chemiosomosis, proton gradient in intermembrane space, ATP formation in mitochondrial matrix, ATP symthase, proton-motive force, oxidative phosphorylation, oxygen is the final electron acceptor, without oxygen the STC and the citric acid cycle stop and fermentation occurs, accounting of energy in each step, 34% efficient, Fermentation alcoholic fermentation, lactic acid fermentation, obligate anaerobes, falcultative anaerobes, 

Friday, October 26, 2018

chapt 6 notes and vocabulary flashcards

Chapter 6 metablolism An organism's metabolism transforms matter and energy Metabolism, metablolic pathway, catabolic, anabolic, bioenergetics, Forms of energy, (chemical) potential, kinetic, thermal, 1st and second law of thermodynamics, biological order, Free energy change of a reaction tells us whether ofr not the reaction occurs spontaneously free energy, delta G, stability and equilibrium,endergonic, exergonic, ATP powers cellular work by coupling exergonic reactions to endergonic reactions ATP energy coupling Hydrolysis of ATP does work, Phosphorylated intermediate, ATP regeneration, enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers Activation energy free energy delta G unaffected by enzyme, catalysis, enzyme, active site, substrate, enzyme substrate complex, effects of temp range, and pH range, cofactors, coenzymes,competetive inhibition,noncompetitive inhibition(allosteric), and activation, cooperativity,feedback inhibition (more causes less, less causes more)

Wednesday, October 24, 2018

diffusion osmosis

http://www.biology.arizona.edu/cell_bio/problem_sets/membranes/index.html